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Monographia Aquifoliacearum - Loizeau Pierre-André & Gabrielle Barriera


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Aquifoliaceae of Neotropics

Loizeau P.-A. & G. Barriera


Ilex guayusa Loes.

Habit, vegetative morphology.— Tree, evergreen, 6–30 m tall. 23–50 cm dbh (pour un arbre de 20–25 m). Current year's branchlets glabrous (parfois poils très courts). Branchlets older than one year smooth or furrowed, reddish, glabrous. Lenticels on current year's branchlets present. Internodes 0.5–3 cm. Stipules persistent or caducous, linear-triangular, 1–2 mm. Petiole glabrous, smooth surface, 7–17 mm. Lamina ovate or elliptic, oblong (1:2) to lanceolate (1:3), 7–22 X, 2.5–7 cm, papyraceous, glabrous abaxially (parfois quelques minuscules poils à la base le long de la marge). Base cuneate to obtuse (décurrente, les marges se rejoignent sur le pétiole). Apex obtuse to acute, mucronate. Apex acuminate. Acumen 0.5–1.5 cm. Margin plane or revolute, crenate or dentate, teeth inconspicuous or conspicuous. Teeth 10–30 ca., over the entire length of the margin. Midbrid adaxially légèrement impressed to flat, glabrous. Midbrid abaxially raised, glabrous (parfois quelques rares et minuscules poils). Secondary veins abaxially evident, 7–15 pairs. Tertiary veins abaxially evident (peu nombreuses). Ponctuation abaxiallly absent.

Inflorescences.— Thyrse, non proliferating.

Male flowers.— Thyrses axes solitary and axillary. Thyrses axes 0.2–0.4 cm. Cymes of order 1–3. Peduncles glabrous. Peduncles of order 1 5–10 mm. Pherophylls of order 1 at 5–7 tenth from the base. Peduncles of order 2 2–4 mm. Pherophylls of order 2 at 4–5 tenth from the base. Peduncles of order 3 2–4 mm. Pherophylls of order 3 at 0–1 tenth from the base. Bracts deltoids, glabrous, 1 mm, margin entire. Pherophylls of order 1 subopposite, deltoid, glabrous, 0.5 mm, margin entire. Male flowers 4 -merous, white. Calyx glabrous, 1.5–2 mm in diam., margin entire. Corolla 3 mm, petals connate on, petals 5–10 % of their length. Apex margin entire. Stamens at the anthesis equal to corolla or shorter than corolla. Rudimentary ovary subglobulous or flattened, glabrous.

Female flowers.— Thyrses axes solitary and axillary. Thyrses axes 0.1–0.3 cm. Cymes of order 1. Peduncles glabrous (parfois poils minuscules). Peduncles of order 1 3–7(–9) mm. Pherophylls of order 1 at 2–5 tenth of the base. Bracts deltoids or linear-triangulate, glabrous (parfois poils minuscules), 0.3–1 mm, margin entire or margin ciliate or dentate. Pherophylls of order 1 opposite or subopposite, deltoids or linear-triangulate, glabrous (parfois poils minuscules), 0.4–0.7 mm, margin entire or margin ciliate. Female flowers 4 -merous, white. Calyx glabrous (parfois quelques rares poils minuscules), margin entire (papilleuse), 2–4 mm in diam. Corolla 2.5–3.3 mm, petals connate on, petals 15–20 % of their length. Apex margin entire (possibly beaded). Staminodes sagittate, glabrous (poils minuscules ou papilles sur la marge des "anthères"). Ovary ovoid (à tendance pyramidale), glabrous, stigma mamillate or capitate, stigma glabrous.

Fruits.— Fruit red, spherical, 6–7 mm in diam., 7–8 mm.

Distribution, ecology.— South America, Colombia Ecuador Peru Brazil, 200–2000 m, Cultivé. A l'état naturel "Bosque" andin de pérennes et décidues: en forêts dominée par Dyctiocaryum. Lisières de forêts. Premontane rain forest.

Flowering.— March to November.

Vernacular name.— "Guayusa", "Huayusa" (selon Díaz 2832).

Use.— Selon Díaz 2832, cette espèce est utilisée en infusion comme relâchant nerveux. Selon Pinkley 456, on en fait un thé tonique pour la santé. Les Jivaros l'utilisent comme émétique.

Illustrations.— • Dessin Little 594 COL mâle. • Planche Lawrance 559 MO. • Inflorescences Lawrance 559 MO. • Feuille Lawrance 559 MO. • Planche Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Feuilles Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Marge limbe Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Inflorescence Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Inflorescence Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Inflorescence Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Inflorescence Lawrance 559 G f (IT). • Icone photographiée à K. • Planche Lehmann 5581 K f.


Cite this publication as: ‘Loizeau, P.-A. & G. Barriera (2007). Aquifoliaceae néotropicales: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, et Recherche d'Information. Version: 1st march 2007. http://www.ville-ge.ch/cjb/.
Loizeau (1994) et Loizeau & Spichiger (1992) should also be cited (see Bibliography).