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Monographia Aquifoliacearum - Loizeau Pierre-André & Gabrielle Barriera


Aquifoliaceae of Neotropics

Loizeau P.-A. & G. Barriera

Ilex maxima W. J. Hahn

Habit, vegetative morphology.— Tree, evergreen, 4–15 m tall. 6–9 cm dbh. Current year's branchlets glabrous. Branchlets older than one year smooth or furrowed, greyish or brownish, glabrous. Lenticels on current year's branchlets present (peu visibles). Internodes 0.2–4.2 cm. Stipules caducous, linear-triangular, 0.5–2 mm. Petiole glabrous, smooth surface or rough or grooved surface, 6–20 mm. Lamina ovate or elliptic or obovate, oblong (1:2) (1:1.5), 10–40 X, 3.8–15 cm, papyraceous or coriaceous (ou subcoriace), glabrous abaxially. Base cuneate or acute or obtuse or rounded. Apex rounded or obtuse or acute, not mucronate. Apex retuse or acuminate. Acumen 0.3–3.5 cm. Margin plane or revolute (finement), crenate or dentate, teeth inconspicuous. Teeth 7–20 ca., over the entire length of the margin. Midbrid adaxially raised, glabrous. Midbrid abaxially raised, glabrous. Secondary veins abaxially evident, 7–14 pairs. Tertiary veins abaxially evident. Ponctuation abaxiallly present.

Inflorescences.— Thyrse, non proliferating or proliferating.

Male flowers.— Thyrses axes solitary and axillary. Thyrses axes 0.15–0.3 cm. Cymes of order 1–2. Peduncles glabrous. Peduncles of order 1 12–17 mm. Pherophylls of order 1 at 6–7 tenth from the base. Peduncles of order 2 1–3 mm. Pherophylls of order 2 at 0–1 tenth from the base. Bracts deltoids, glabrous, 1–2 mm, margin entire. Pherophylls of order 1 opposite, deltoid, glabrous, 0.5–0.6 mm, margin entire. Male flowers 4–5 -merous, white. Calyx glabrous, 2.4–3 mm in diam., margin entire. Corolla 2–2.5 mm, petals connate on, petals 10–20 % of their length. Apex margin entire. Stamens at the anthesis equal to corolla. Rudimentary ovary subglobulous or flattened (terminé par 4 pseudostyles), glabrous.

Female flowers.— Thyrses axes solitary and axillary. Thyrses axes 0.1–0.75 cm. Cymes of order 1. Peduncles glabrous or pubescent. Peduncles of order 1 3–10.5 mm. Pherophylls of order 1 at 0–5 tenth of the base. Bracts deltoids or linear-triangulate, glabrous, 0.5–3 mm, margin entire. Pherophylls of order 1 opposite or subopposite, deltoids, glabrous, 0.3–0.8 mm, margin entire. Female flowers 4(–5) -merous (certains fruits ont un calice à 5 lobes Murphy 555), white or of another color than white, yellow or green (blanc-verdâtres). Calyx glabrous, margin entire, 2.2–3.5 mm in diam. Corolla 2.2–3 mm, petals free. Apex margin entire (possibly beaded). Staminodes sagittate, glabrous. Ovary ovoid or spherical or flattened, glabrous, stigma capitate, stigma glabrous.

Fruits.— Fruit red (dark purple) or green or of another color than red, black or green (blanc-verdâtre), spherical, 5–7.5 mm in diam., 7–10 mm.

Distribution, ecology.— Central America or South America, Costa Rica or Panama, Colombia, 50–1980 m, Forêt, forêt tropicale humide, lower montane wet forest with a few pasture clearings, pluvial forest, recently raped 2° forest, very disturbed, transition between tropical wet and pluvial forest.

Flowering.— January or February or March or April (fruits) or June (fruits) or September or October or November (fleurs).

Illustrations.— • Planche Nee 9626 MOat f (HT). • Etiquettes Nee 9626 MOat f (HT). • Rameau Nee 9626 MOat f (HT). • Planche Nee 9526 G f (IT).

Cite this publication as: ‘Loizeau, P.-A. & G. Barriera (2007). Aquifoliaceae néotropicales: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, et Recherche d'Information. Version: 1st march 2007.
Loizeau (1994) et Loizeau & Spichiger (1992) should also be cited (see Bibliography).