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Monographia Aquifoliacearum - Loizeau Pierre-André & Gabrielle Barriera


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Aquifoliaceae of Neotropics

Loizeau P.-A. & G. Barriera


Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

Habit, vegetative morphology.— Tree or shrub (parfois), evergreen, 5–16 m tall. Current year's branchlets glabrous. Branchlets older than one year smooth or furrowed, greyish or brownish, glabrous. Lenticels on current year's branchlets present. Internodes 0.2–3(–6.5) cm. Stipules persistent, linear-triangular, 0.5–1 mm. Petiole glabrous, rough or grooved surface, (2–)5–10(–19) mm. Lamina elliptic to obovate, oblong (1:2), (1.8–)5–11(–20) X, (1–)2.5–5(–10) cm, coriaceous, glabrous abaxially. Base acute. Apex obtuse, mucronate (parfois) or not mucronate. Apex retuse or rounded. Margin revolute, crenate, teeth conspicuous. Teeth 5–10 ca., over the entire length of the margin to on the distal half of the margin. Midbrid adaxially impressed to flat (parfois proéminente sur du matériel sec en fonction du séchage ou de l'âge de la feuille), glabrous. Midbrid abaxially raised, glabrous. Secondary veins abaxially obscure, 5–8 pairs. Tertiary veins abaxially evident. Ponctuation abaxiallly absent.

Inflorescences.— Thyrse, proliferating.

Male flowers.— Thyrses axes solitary and axillary. Thyrses axes 0.2–4 cm. Cymes of order 2–3. Peduncles glabrous or pubescent (poils peu denses). Peduncles of order 1 (3–)8–13(–18) mm. Pherophylls of order 1 at 6–8 tenth from the base. Peduncles of order 2 (2–)3–5(–8) mm. Pherophylls of order 2 at 0–1 tenth from the base. Peduncles of order 3 2–3 mm. Pherophylls of order 3 at 0–1 tenth from the base. Bracts linear-triangular, glabrous or pubescent, 1–1.5 mm, margin entire. Pherophylls of order 1 opposite or subopposite, linear-triangular, glabrous, 0.3–0.5 mm, margin entire. Male flowers 4–5 -merous, white. Calyx glabrous, 1.5–2 mm in diam., margin entire. Corolla 2.5–3.5 mm, petals connate on, petals 5–10 % of their length. Apex margin entire. Stamens at the anthesis shorter than corolla. Rudimentary ovary subglobulous or flattened, glabrous.

Female flowers.— Thyrses axes solitary and axillary. Thyrses axes 0.2–8 cm. Cymes of order 1. Peduncles glabrous or pubescent. Peduncles of order 1 4–8 mm. Pherophylls of order 1 at 1–4 tenth of the base. Bracts linear-triangulate, glabrous or pubescent, 1–1.5 mm (mais assez souvent début de développement en feuille), margin entire. Pherophylls of order 1 opposite, linear-triangulate, glabrous or pubescent, 0.2–0.4 mm, margin entire. Female flowers 4 -merous, white. Calyx glabrous, margin entire, 2–3 mm in diam. Corolla 2.5–3.5 mm, petals connate on, petals 5–10 % of their length. Apex margin entire (possibly beaded). Staminodes sagittate, glabrous. Ovary ovoid, glabrous, stigma capitate, stigma glabrous.

Fruits.— Fruit red or black or of another color than red, black or green (violacé), ovoid, 3.5–5.5 mm in diam., 3.5–7 mm.

Distribution, ecology.— South America, Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul) Paraguay (oriental) Argentina (Misiones et nord-est de Corrientes) Uruguay, Forêts, depuis celles avec de grands arbres jusqu'au matorral, rarement dans des cerrados.

Flowering.— January or February or March or April or October or November or December.

Vernacular name.— Ka'a y (ka'a y= herbe arborée,nom originel); ka'a mata (hybride actuel du précédent); ka'a (par simplification); yerbamate (mate, nom quechua de Lagenaria vulgaris L., dans le fruit duquel se prépare le maté).

Use.— Espèce du genre ayant une grande importance économique. C'est l'élément principal du maté, boisson nationale du Paraguay et des états ou provinces proches de celui-ci au Brésil et en Argentine. Les jeunes feuilles et les jeunes rameaux sont utilisés en infusion, produisant des effets stimulants et nutritifs, car elles contiennent de la caféine, de la théobromine et des vitamines.

Illustrations.— • Dessin in Giberti, G. C. (1994). Aquifoliaceae. Flora del Paraguay 24: 26.. • Planche Tweedie s.n. K f. • Planche Saint-Hilaire Cat. C2, 1631bis P f (HT). • Fruit Saint-Hilaire Cat. C2, 1631bis P f (HT). • Limbe, face inférieure Saint-Hilaire Cat. C2, 1631bis P f (HT). • Fruits Saint-Hilaire Cat. C2, 1631bis P f (HT). • Planche Giberti 199 LPB ?. • Planche Widgren 536 f BR (ST d'I. sorbilis). • Etiquettes Widgren 536 f BR (ST d'I. sorbilis). • Planche Sello 2080 BR m. • Etiquettes Sello 2080 BR m. • Inflorescence Sello 2080 BR m. • Inflorescence Sello 2080 BR m. • Planche Glaziou 19002 BR m (ST d'I. paraguariensis f. confusa). • Inflorescence Glaziou 19002 BR m (ST d'I. paraguariensis f. confusa). • Rameau Glaziou 19002 BR m (ST d'I. paraguariensis f. confusa). • Planches Bonpland s.n. BM f (HT du var. dentata) & Gaudichaud 57 BM m (HT du var. usitata). • Planche Gaudichaud 57 BM m (HT de I. paraguariensis var. usitata). • Planche Bonpland s.n. BM f (HT de I. paraguariensis var. dentata). • Planche Miers s.n. BM st. • Planche Bonpland 596 BM m. • Planche Hassler 5886 NYat (IT de f. latifolia). • Pollen n°84 K. • Pollen n°85 K.


Cite this publication as: ‘Loizeau, P.-A. & G. Barriera (2007). Aquifoliaceae néotropicales: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, et Recherche d'Information. Version: 1st march 2007. http://www.ville-ge.ch/cjb/.
Loizeau (1994) et Loizeau & Spichiger (1992) should also be cited (see Bibliography).