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L'herbier des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques et ses quelque six millions d’échantillons est un des plus importants au monde. Quant au jardin, il abrite de magnifiques collections de plantes vivantes.

Site internet des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques

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Accueil Programme

Maguta Museum: Celebrating historical memories and ancestral traditions

João Pacheco de Oliveira and Salomão Inácio Clemente

João Pacheco de Oliveira will describe how the Maguta Museum, located in the border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru, was created and seek to understand the multiple meanings and uses it had for the Tikuna people. It had an enormous importance in the struggle for the demarcation of the Tikuna territory and in the political and identitarian articulation between more than a hundred local communities spread over seven municipalities, along the Amazon River.
Over three decades of existence, a political, cultural and linguistic protagonism has been established that has profoundly marked the history of the Tikunas and is an indispensable starting point for understanding the current challenges today. Although it may seem incidental, the relationship between the Maguta Museum and the National Museum [MNRJ] was for both constitutive, persistent, and essential. (…) The relationship with the Tikuna also deeply marked the National Museum collections and its exhibitions. In the reopening of the new Ethnology room in 2009, the masks used in the new girl's ritual occupied the central space, as well as a panel and a video introducing the visitor to the Maguta Museum, “the first indigenous museum in Brazil”. It also inspired the emergence of a line of participatory curation (which was immediately expressed in the exposition “The First Nations of Brazil” (2006-2021) and in the linguistic specialization of several indigenous teachers. The fire at the National Museum in 2018 coincided with a period in which some of the former and main Tikuna leaders, such as the director of the Maguta Museum, Nino Fernandes, died. This partnership is now being reactivated by a new generation of indigenous researchers in order to face together the new challenges posed to the two museums.
Salomão Inácio Clemente will introduce himself using his Tikuna name, Daupawee’cu, which is translated as “the red beak of the curassow”, which puts him as a person of a specific clan (the curassow) and a member of a matrimonial moiety, his affines (brother-in-law) being people whose clans have terrestrial animals or trees as eponyms.
He will talk about the formation of the Maguta Museum's ethnographic collection, pointing out its composition, places of origin and clan name of the producers of these artifacts. Based on a survey carried out in 2014 on the former Tikuna collections of the National Museum, he will carry out a general assessment of the artifacts that made up the collection and the ethnographic exhibition. Focusing on the collection of drawings made on tururis (fibres), he will articulate such images with narratives from Tikuna cosmology. Next, he will approach the Maguta Museum room where the ritual masks related to the female initiation ritual are located, showing the different reactions of visitors to the exhibition of such artifacts. Masks and objects associated with the ritual of the new girl are placed with great prominence in ethnographic museums and are conceived by non-indigenous people as emblematic of the Tikunas, although it is worth noting that this aspect of tradition is not viewed consensually by indigenous visitors. Salomão Inácio Clemente will give a brief tour of the life and trajectory of some of the specialists and producers of these masks, showing how the celebration of certain rituals in some communities can be a generator of conflicts and tensions, as well as the simple production of some of these objects. Something that an indigenous museum (unlike other ethnographic museums) needs to reflect and deal with.

João Pacheco de Oliveira is an anthropologist, Full Professor of Ethnology and Curator of Ethnographic Collections at the National Museum, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He carried out extensive research among the Tikunas, from Brazilian Amazon. He was one of the founders of the Maguta Museum, the first indigenous museum in Brazil (1991) awarded by the ICOM (1996). Author of three books (1987, 2001 and 2015) and many articles and collections about the Tikunas. Curator of the ethnographic collections of the National Museum since 2001. In 2006 he organized the exhibition “The First Nations of Brazil” focusing on the history and culture of the indigenous peoples of the northeast, an activity that spanned 13 expositions throughout the country; due to the pandemic, this year, it became the National Museum's first virtual exhibition. He published analytical works on the collection of indigenous people from Mato Grosso, on the formation of the Maguta Museum, and on the ritual masks assembled by Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira on trips through the region (1783-1792). He was recently one of the organizers of the book “From Colonial Collections to Indigenous Museums. Forms of protagonism and museum illusion” (2019).

Salomão Inácio Clemente is a Tikuna researcher and a member of Maguta Museum (Benjamin Constant, Amazonas). As an indigenous Tikuna, 31 years old, married, father of two girls, fisherman and farmer, resident in the community of Bom Intento, municipality of Benjamin Constant. After completing high school, he enrolled in 2010 for a degree in social sciences at the Federal University of Amazonas, on the campus of Benjamin Constant, finishing in 2016. In 2014, at the invitation of João Pacheco, he did an internship at the National Museum, knowing the technical reserve of ethnology and researching the Tikuna collection, writing mythical narratives related to the set of existing drawings on the tururis (bark of a tree specially treated and transformed into a surface on which the Tikuna artists work). In 2018 he started his Master's Degree in Anthropology at the Manaus campus of the Federal University of Amazonas and is expected to defend his dissertation early next year. His research topic is the female initiation ritual (worec: u in Tikuna language and “moça nova”/”new girl” in Portuguese). He is an active collaborator of the Maguta Museum and son of the current director, Santo Cruz Mariano.