African Plant Database

TA = Tropical Africa Area (EPFAT Area, country-based, south of the Sahara, complementary to the following)
SA = Southern Africa Area (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland)
NA = North Africa (Mauritania, Morocco, Canary Isl., Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Madeira)
MA = Madagascar (Malagasy Republic)

Statistics about plants names and species

The database currently comprises 204872 names with 78488 accepted .
Number of accepted taxons are:
35517 taxons for TA area (including introduced taxons)
24760 taxons for SA area (including introduced taxons)
9580 taxons for NA (including Macaronesia).
12870 taxons for MA area (including introduced taxons)

Origin of data, updates

  • For TA, only part of ecological and distribution data are currently available, corresponding to the families published in the 1-4 volumes of Lebrun & Stork's "Tropical African Flowering Plants: Ecology and Distribution". Information from future volumes will be incorporated as they are published.
  • For SA, all ecology and distribution data are available.
  • For NA, biological information on species is not currently available, but will be incorpored later.
  • For MA, core data is provided and updated regulary from Madagascar Catalogue, users are invited to consult this online for the most up-to-date information, distribution maps and images.
  • List of Families with recent update

Incorporation of species from the Guinean Gulf islands (Sao Tomé, Bioko, Annobon, Principe) is in process, in collaboration with Lisbon Botanical Garden. Incorporation of data from Cape Verde and the East African Islands (Zanzibar, Socotra) is planned.

Data will be updated on a regular basis, following the literature. Any missing information or corrections are most welcome (see front page for contact info).

Tropical Africa southern african plants Madagascar catalogue

flores afrique

The main floras of continental Africa and Madagascar

Madagascar data:

The Flore de Madagascar et des Comores series, published by the Paris Museum has treated 165 of the 222 traditionally recognised plant families (75%) in Madagascar. The first part, Aponogetonaceae, appeared in 1936, and most of the other published volumes appeared during the following 30 years. Full or partial taxonomic treatments for genera in some of the outstanding families have been published subsequently elsewhere (notably in the journal Adansonia) and also some excellent detailed monographs (such as for the legumes and palms) are available. Our knowledge of the flora of Madagascar is thus advancing steadily. However, many of the treatments in earlier volumes are now badly outdated and are of little use today and some genera has never been treated and so many are in urgent need of taxonomic revision.

The Catalogue of Vascular Plants of Madagascar represents a synthesis of published data on the flora of Madagascar and an analysis of the current status of the taxonomy of every genus and an estimate of the number of undescribed species. It comprises a browseable and searchable database, freely available online (, that includes taxonomic data, images, vernacular names and conservation status for vascular plants occurring naturally in Madagascar. A printed catalogue is envisaged.

Accepted standards names /Discrepancies

  • Genera: "Index Nominum Genericorum" ING (Farr et al. 1979, 1986) is accepted as standard.
  • Epithets: we refer to the original publication, and apply IBC if necessary.
  • Authors: "Authors of plant names" (Brummitt & Powel, 1992) is accepted as standard. Discrepancies often arise because of different origins of the data. Consulting the original publication or simply applying the nomenclatural code helped to solve these discrepancies. Most of the remaining discrepancies originated from the interpretation of "ex" in authors.

Family concept, attribution of genera to families. We primarily decided to follow the family circumscription of "Vascular Plants Families and Genera" (Brummitt, 1992). Following subsequent works at family level, discrepancies arose between FSA and EPFAT. If no consensus could be reached, both views are presented. [MADCAT according to APGIII]

Generic concept, attribution of species to genera, synonyms: Since all four lists rely on treatments that are often limited geographically, it is clear that in several cases of shared taxa, there is no general consensus on which name is current, and which is a synonym. The present work does not pretend to solve these discrepancies, and the outputs are designed to reflect diverging taxonomic views in parallel, pointing out areas for future taxonomic research.

Infraspecific level. There is only one (optional) infraspecific level, which can be either subspecies, variety, subvariety or forma. Nevertheless, merging the four lists has also revealed an immense area of discrepancies at the infraspecific level. These include:
•    Species subdivided into infraspecifics in one list, but not in the other.
•    Species subdivided at a different level, e.g. subspecies vs. varieties.
Once more, the outputs are designed to present both views, waiting for a future taxonomic treatment to solve these issues.
For NA, the status of variety is usually not mentioned; in many cases it needs more study. All these varieties are linked to the upper infraspecific level or to the species.

Distribution maps

The distribution points are of two distinct types:

1. Validated data (red dots) by the APD project showing the main distributions in regions or countries and not all of the existing observations.
  • For the Tropical area, data are extracted from the maps published in Lebrun & Stork's "Tropical African Flowering Plants: Ecology and Distribution". The dots on these original maps correspond mainly to citation of species in the literature. The reference maps are 6 x 6 cm, thus precision of these dots is roughly +/- 2° latitude and longitude. Accordingly, we represent these points by a large dot. No map is available at infraspecific level!
  • For the Southern Africa area, data are mainly extracted from the PRECIS database and represent herbarium collections, databased on grids of quarter-degree squares (approximately 25 x 25 km). Dots are generally more numerous and more precise in location than fir TA. We represent them using a smaller dot.
  • For the North Africa area, data are extracted from Dobignard checklist based on North African floras. Dots correspond to presence in a country.
  • For the Madagascar area, we display only presence by a symbol. Detailed distribution data can be obtained from the Madagascar Catalogue for every species.
2. All observations and herbarium samples with the most accurate location possible, but not validated by the APD project. This data comes from collaborations with different external projects.
  • African data from the National Herbarium of the Netherlands (Naturalis), more than 300'000 collections with a very high precision , thanks to the collaboration of Jan Wieringa.
  • Ivory Coast collections (76'000), from the SIG-IVOIRE project which was published in Boissiera 64 (2011). They concern almost all data collected in Côte d'Ivoire since the beginning of the century.
  • Rainbio project data. A compilation of extensive "public" databases of several herbaria (BR, BRLU, K, LISC, MO and WAG (including AMD, L and U) .With the data set received from RAINBIO, we have removed all data from Naturalis and Côte d'Ivoire, as they are already contained in APD, so the addition concerns only 174'000 occurrences for mapping The collaboration with WAG has been one of the most dynamic since the start of the APD project. Reference: Dauby, R.Z & al. (2016) RAINBIO: a mega-database of tropical African vascular plants distributions, PhytoKeys, 74: 1-18.
  • Data from the FLOTROP project covering the Sahel region, studied by the pasture development projects of CIRAD-IEMVT, between 1920 and 2012. The data concern 8800 taxa and 440'000 occurrences. But beware, samples and observations are not necessarily validated. Reference: Gaston A. & P. Daget (2001). The FLOTROP database and the inventory of the flora of the pastures of Sahelian Africa. Systematics and Geography of Plants, 71, 337-344.
  • Project data North Africa. These are observations from the work of Peter Frankenberg (University of Bonn) and another part of herbarium specimens from the Maghreb Flore project, including the types of the Montpellier herbarium (MPU) and information from the HERBONAUTES of Paris, and many collections
Only APD data are validated (red dots), other sources of data (small dots), by their very large number, can not be verified as a whole, they are therefore presented for information.

legends map


Checklist of sub-saharan Africa was published by SANBI
Klopper & al. Klopper & al. Klopper & al. Klopper & al. Klopper & al. Klopper & al. Klopper & al. Klopper & al.
  • Klopper, R., L. Gautier, C. Chatelain, Smith, G. and R. Spichiger. (2007). Floristics of the angiosperm flora of Sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of the African Plant Checklist and Database. Taxon 56: 201-208.

  • Klopper, R., C. Chatelain, V. Banninger, C. Habashi, H.M. Steyn, C. de Wet, T.H. Arnold, L. Gautier, G.F. Smith & R. Spichiger (2006). Checklist of the flowering plants of Sub-Saharan Africa. An index of accepted names and synonyms. SABONET Report No. 42, Pretoria 900 pp.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2003). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol.1 Annonaceae-Balanitaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. hors série 9.,793 pp.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2006). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol.2 Euphorbiaceae-Dichapetalaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. hors série 9a., 306 pp.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2008). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol.3 Mimosaceae-Fabaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. hors série., 325 pp.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2008). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol.4 Fabaceae (desmodium-Zornia). Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. hors série., 291 pp.

  • Phillipson, P.B., G.E. Schatz, P.P. Lowry II & J.-N. Labat 2006. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar pp. 613-627. In: S.A. Ghazanfar & H.J. Beentje (eds) 2006. Taxonomy and Ecology of African Plants, their Conservation and Sustainable Use. Proceedings of the 17th AETFAT Congress, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du Nord. Vol.1, Pterydophyta, Gymnospermae, Monocotyledoneae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série 11.

  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du Nord. Vol.2, Dicotyledonae, Acanthaceae à Asteraceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série 11a.

  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du Nord. Vol.3, Dicotyledonae, Balsaminaceae à Euphorbiaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série 11b.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2011). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol.6 Burseraceae-Apiaceae and Addendum vol.1. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. hors série.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2012). Tropical African flowering Plants Ecology and Distribution. vol. 7. Monocotyledons 1,(Limnocharitaceae - Agavaceae). Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série 9f.

  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain (2012) Index synonymique de la Flore d'Afrique du nord. Vol. 4: Dicotyledonae: Fabaceae à Nymphaeaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série 11c.

  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain (2013) Index synonymique de la Flore d'Afrique du nord. Vol. 5: Dicotyledonae: Oleaceae-Zygophyllaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série 11d.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2014). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol. 8. Monocotyledons 2 (Anthericaceae-Palmae). Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série.

  • Lebrun J.-P. & A. Stork (2015). Tropical african Flowering plants. Ecology and distribution. vol. 9. Orchidaceae (A-G). Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, hors-série.


If you want to link or query your data with a APD record, you can set up a OpenURL link :<NAME_to_FIND>&efFamille=<FAMILY_To_FIND>&projet%5B%5D=FSA&projet%5B%5D=FTA &projet%5B%5D=FNA&projet%5B%5D=BDM&langue=en&pbRecherche=Rechercher

Then use our logo to make the link
Exemple : with only a specie name (without family): mahonii&efFamille=&projet%5B%5D=FSA&projet%5B%5D=FTA&projet%5B%5D=FNA&projet%5B%5D=BDM &langue=fr&pbRecherche=Rechercher



TISSERANT, Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flore de l'Oubangui-Chari. Mém. Institut d'Etudes Centrafricaines, 2, 1 vol., 165 pp.
BOULEVERT, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique. 3 tomes, vol. 1-4; ORSTOM, Bangui
AKé ASSI, L. (1978). Contribution à l'identification et au recensement des plantes utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle et la pharmacopée en Empire Centrafricain. 1 vol., 139 pp., ACCT, Paris.
VIVIEN, J. & J. J. FAURE (1985). Arbres des forêts denses d'Afrique centrale. 1 vol., 565 pp. ACCT, Paris.

ROBYNS, W. & coll. multiples (1948-). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda- Urundi (puis Flore du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, puis Flore d'Afrique centrale, Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
RAYNAL, J. & coll. (1979). Flore et médecine traditionnelle. Mission d'étude 1978 au Rwanda. L Observations floristiques. 1 vol., 336 pp., ACCT, Paris.
TROUPIN, G. (1971). Syllabus de la flore du Rwanda. 1 vol.
TROUPIN, G. (1978-). Flore du Rwanda. Spermatophytes. Vol. 1, 1 vol. XIII + 413 pp.; vol. 2, 1 vol. XII + 603 pp.; vol. 3, vol. XIV + 729pp., Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgique.
TROUPIN, G. (1982). Flore des plantes ligneuses du Rwanda. 1 vol. XI + 747 pp., Institut National de Recherche scientifique, Butare, Rép. Rwandaise, publication n° 21
FISCHER, E. & D. KILLMANN (2008). Illustrated field guide to the plants of Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda. (Koblenz Geographical Colloquia, Series Biogeographical Monographs 1) Universität Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz. 771 pp.
BLOESCH, U. & al. (2009). Les plantes ligneuses du Rwanda - Flore, écologie et usages. Shaker Verlag, Aachen. 757 pp.


ADJANOHOUN, E. J. & al. (1988). Contribution aux études ethno botaniques et floristiques en République Populaire du Congo. ACCT (Médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopée), Paris, 1 vol., 605 pp.
DESCOINGS, B. (1961). Inventaire des plantes vasculaires de la République du Congo déposées dans l'herbier de I ’Institut d'Etudes Centrafricaines à Brazzaville. 1 fasc. 63 pp., ORSTOM, Institut d'Etudes Centrafricaines, Brazzaville.
BROOKS, R. R., F. MALAISSE & A. EMPAIN (1985). The heavy metal-tolerant flora of southcentral Africa – A multidisciplinary approach. Balkema, Rotterdam & Boston. 199 pp.
SITA, P. & J.-M. MOUTSAMBOTE (1988). Catalogue des plan tes vasculaires du Congo. 1 vol. 195 pp. ORSTOM., Brazzaville.
CHAMPLUVIER, D. & F. DOWSETT-LEMAIRE (1999). Liste commentée des plantes vasculaires du Parc National d'Odzala nouvelles pour le Congo-Brazzaville. Syst. Geogr.Pl. 69: 9-28.
LATHAM, P. & A. KONDA KU MBUTA (2007). Plantes utiles du Bas-Congo, République démocratique du Congo. 344 pp.

AUBRéVILLE, A. (éd.) & coll. (1963-). Flore du Cameroun, 30 vol. (en cours de parution), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
CABLE, S. & M. CHEEK (1998). The plants of Mount Cameroon: A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. LXXIX + 198 pp.
CHEEK, M., J.-M. ONANA & B. J. POLLARD (2000). The plants of Mount Oku and the Ijim Ridge, Cameroon. A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. IV + 211pp.
HARRIS, D. J. & A. H. WORTLEY (2008). Sangha trees. An illustrated identification manual / Les arbres de la Sangha. Manuel d'identification illustré. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. VI + 300 pp.
CHEEK, M. & al. (2010). The plants of Dom, Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon. A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond. IV + 162 pp.
HARVEY, Y. & al. (2010). The plants of Lebialem Highlands, (Bechati-Fosimondi-Besali), Cameroon: A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 170 pp.

AUBRéVILLE, A. (éd.) & coll. multiples (1961-). Flore du Gabon. 30 vol. (en cours de parution), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
WHITE, L. & K. ABERNETHY (1996). Guide de la végétation de la Réserve de la Lopé. Ecofac Gabon, Libreville. V + 224 pp.
SOSEF, M.S.M & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35 :438p.
AUBY, G. & al. (2008). Vascular plant checklist of the coastal National Park of Pongara, Gabon. Syst. Geogr. Pl. 78: 155-216.


OREY, J. & M. C. LIBERATO (1971). Flora da Guiné Portuguesa (quelques fascicules parus; en cours de parution). Jardim e Museu Agricola do Ultramar, Lisboa.
AEDO, C., Ma. Teresa TELLERÍA & M. VELAYOS & al. (1999). Bases documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial: Plantas vasculares y hongos. Real Jardín Botánico & Cooperación Española, Madrid. 414 pp.
WILKS, C. & Y. ISSEMBé (2000). Les arbres de la Guinée équatoriale. Région continentale. Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des écosystèmes de Guinée équatoriale. (CUREF), Bata. 546 pp.


AUBRéVILLE, A. (1950) Flore forestière africain soudano-guinéenne. A.O.F. - Cameroun - A.E.FZ 1 vol., 523 pp., Société d'Editions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales, Paris. Réimpression en 1975 (C.T.F.T, Nogent-sur-Marne).
GEERLING, C. (1982). Guide de terrain des ligneux sahéliens et soudano-guinéens. Meded Landbouwhog. Wageningen 82(3), 1vol., 340 pp. - Idem (1988). Deuxième édition. Agric. Univ. Wageningen Papers 87-4, 1 vol., 340 pp.
AYDELL, H.-J. VON (1983). Arbres et arbustes du Sahel Leurs caractéristiques et leurs utilisations. 1 voi. 531 pp., Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammcnarbeit GmbH (GTZ) n° 147, Eschborn, Allemagne fédérale.
MAYDELL, H.-J. (1988). Multipurpose trees of the Sahel for food production. Symb. Bot. Upsala 28/3: 103-110.
NEUMANN, K. & al. (2001). Woods of the Sahara and the Sahel ... an anatomical atlas. Eidg. Forschungsanstalt WSL, Birmensdorf & Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern, etc., 465pp.
LE BOURGEOIS, T. & H. MERLIER (1995). Adventrop: Les adventices d'Afrique soudano-sahélienne. CIRAD, Montpellier, Ministère français de la Coopération, Paris & Projet Garoua, Maroua (Cameroun). 636 pp.
ARBONNIER, M. (2002). Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d'Afrique de l'Ouest.ed. 2. CIRAD & Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris. 574 pp.
BENCHELAH, A.-C. & al. (2006). Arbres et arbustes du Sahara: Voyage au coeur de leurs usages. Editions Ibis Press, Paris. 239 pp.
ARBONNIER, M. (2009). Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d'Afrique de l'Ouest, ed. 3. CIRAD, Montpellier. 576 pp.
OZENDA, P.(1991). Flore et végétation du Sahara. Ed. 2. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 622pp.

QUEZEL, P. (1958). Mission botanique au Tibesti. Mém. Inst. Rech. Sah. 4: 357 pp.
GILLET, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad). Mém. Muséum Paris; nouv. sér 2, 17: 206 pp.
LEBRUN, .1.-P. & coll. (1972). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad méridional 1 vol., 289 pp., I.E.M.V.'IZ, Maisons-Alfort.
LEBRUN, J.-P. & A. GASTON (1976). Premier supplément au "Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad méridional". Adansonia, sér. 2, 15: 381-390.
LEBRUN, J.-P. & A. GASTON (1977). Second supplément au " Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad méridional". Public. Cairo Univ. Herbarium 7-8: 109-114.
LEBRUN, J.-P. & A. GASTON (1986). Troisième supplément au "Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad méridional". Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 133, Lettres Bot. (4/5): 387-392.
CESAR J, & C. CHATELAIN (2019). Flore illustrée du Tchad. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de Genève, Univ. N’Djaména, Coopèration Suisse.


ANDREWS, F. W. (1950-1956). The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan, vol. 1, LXXXVI + 237 pp.; vol. 2, VIII + 485 pp.; vol. 3 "The flowering plants of the Sudan", 1 vol. VIII + 579 pp. Buncle & Co., Arbroath, Ecosse.
DARBYSHIRE, I. KORDOFAMI, M. & al. (2015). The plants of Sudan and South Sudan, An annoted checklist. Kew Publishing.

HUTCHINSON, J. & J. M. DALZIEL (1954-1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa. 3 vols. + 1 fasc. [ éd. 2, révisée par R. W. J. KEAY (vol. 1) et par E N. HEPPER pour le reste], Londres.
BURKILL, H. M. (1985-2001). The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Ed. 2. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. - Vol. 1. Families A-D. XVI + 960 pp. (1985). - Vol. 2. Families E-I. XII + 636 pp. (1994). - Vol. 3. Families J-L. XI + 855 pp. (1995). - Vol. 4. Families M-R. XI + 969 pp. (1997). - Vol. 5. Families S-Z. Addenda,Corrigenda, Cryptogamata. XI + 686 pp. (2000).
HAWTHORNE, W. & C. JONGKIND (2006). Woody plants of western African forests: a guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XII + 1023 pp.
STEENTOFT, M. (2008). Flowering plants in West Africa. Cambridge University Press. VII 344 pp.

ADAM, J. G. (1962). Itinéraires botaniques en Afrique occidentale. Flore et végétation d'hiver de la Mauritanie Occidentale. Les Pâturages. Inventaire des plantes signalées en Mauritanie. J. Agric. Trop Bot. Appl. 9: 85-200; 297-416 et XVIII pl. h.»t. et 1 vol. tiré à part de 236 pp., I.E.M.V.T., Maisons-Alfort.
NAEGELE, A. F. G. (1977). Les graminées des pâturages de Mauritanie. 1 vol., 298 pp., Pâturages et cultures fourragères, Etude 5, F.A.O., Rome.
BARRY J. P. & J. C. CELLES (1991). Flore de Mauritanie. 2vol. Institut supérieur scientifique de Nouakchott - Université de Nice.
LEBRUN, J. P.(1998). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental. Boissiera 55 : 1-322.

BERHAUT, J. (1967). Flore du Sénégal.éd. 2. 1 vol., 485 pp., Dakar.
BERHAUT, J. (1971-l988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal (7 volumes parus actuellement). Dakar.
LEBRUN, J.-P. (1973). Enumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal. 1 vol., 109 pp. I.E.M.V.T, Maisons-Alfort.
DE WOLF, J. & al. (2010). Guide des espèces ligneuses de la Casamance. Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale, Tervuren. 176 pp.


CATARINO, L. & al. (2006). Plantas vasculares e briófitos da Guiné-Bissau. Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, etc., Lisboa. 298 pp.
CATARINO, L. & al. (2008). An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). Blumea 53: 1-222.
LISOWSKI, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Première partie (texte). Scripta Bot. Belg. 41; VIII + 517 pp. – Idem. Deuxième partie (illustrations). Scripta Bot. Belg. 42; 566 pp.

JARVIS, A. E. C. (1980). A checklist of Gambian plants. 1 vol., 29 pp. Book Production and Material Resources Unit, Banjul.

VOORHOEVE, A. G. (1967). Liberian high forest trees. Belmontia I, Taxonomy 8, 1. vol., 416 pp.

BOUDET, G., J.-P. LEBRUN & R. DEMANGE(1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali. Etudes et Synthèses de l 'I.E.M.V.T. 16, 1 vol., 480 pp.

PEYRE DE FABRèGUES, B. & J.-P. LEBRUN (1976). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger: 1 vol., 433 pp. I.E.M.V.T., Maisons-Alfort.
BOUDOUREESQUE, E., S. KAGHAN & J.-P. LEBRUN (1978). Premier supplément au "Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger". Adansonia, Sér: 2, 18: 377-390.
ADJANOHOUN, E.-J. (1980) Médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopée, contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Niger: 1 vol., 250 pp. A.C.C.F., Paris.
LEBRUN, J.-P. (1983). Second supplément au "Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger". Bull. Soc. Bot. France 130, Lettres Bot. 1983(E1): 249-256.


KEAY, R. W. J. (1989). Trees of Nigeria. A revised version of Nigerian Trees (1960, 1964). Clarendon Press, Oxford. X +476 pp.


IRVINE, F. R. (1961). Woody plants of Ghana with special reference to their uses. Oxford University Press, London. XCV + 868 pp. + 34 plates.
DOKOSI, O. B. (1998). Herbs of Ghana. Ghana Universities Press, Accra. XVIII + 746 pp.
HAWTHORNE, W. & N. GYAKARI (2006). Photoguide for the forest trees of Ghana: A. tree-spotter’s field guide for identifying the largest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford. IV + 432 pp.

THIOMIANO, A. & al. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. Boissiera 65: 1-391

AUBRéVILLE, A. (1959). La flore forestière de la Côte d 'lvoire, éd. 2, 3 vol. : vol. l, 362 pp.; vol. 2, 340 pp.; vol. 3, 334 pp., Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne.
AKé ASSI, L. (1963). étude floristique de la Côte d'Ivoire. 1 vol., 321 pp. Lechevalier, Paris.
DETIENNE, R (1982). Clé d'identification par les feuilles de 552 arbres et arbustes de Côte d'Ivoire. Note Technique 14. 1 vol., 44 pp. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne.
AKé ASSI, L. (2001-2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I. Boissiera 57, 396 pp. (2001). – Idem II. Boissiera 58, 401 pp.
CHATELAIN C., L. AKé ASSI & al. (2015). Atlas de distribution des plantes de Côte d'Ivoire. Boissiera 64 : 1-400.

ADJANOHOUN, E. J. & al. (1987). Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Togo. Agence de Coopération culturelle et technique (Médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopée). 1 vol., 671 pp.
BRUNEL, J.-E & al. (1985). Flore analytique du Togo, Englera 4: 1-751.


SOUZA, S. (1987). Flore du Bénin. Vol 1: Catalogue des plantes du Bénin. l vol., 87 pp. Vol. 2: Plantes du bord de mer et de Mangrove. lvol., 153 pp. Missions d'Aicie et Coopération française et Université nationale du Bénin, Cotonou.
AKOEGNINOU, A. & al., Eds. (2006). Flore analytique du Bénin. Wageningen Univ. Papers 06.2. XXII + 1034 pp.
SOUZA, S. (2009). Flore du Bénin. Univ. Nationale du Benin. Cotonou.

KEAY, R. W J. & al. (1989). Trees of Nigeria (nouvelle édition). 1 vol., 446 pp. Clarendon press, Oxford.
AGNEW, A. D. Q. & S. AGNEW (1994). Upland Kenya wildflowers. A flora of the ferns and herbaceous flowering plants of upland Kenya. Ed. 2. East Africa Natural History Society, Nairobi. 374 pp.


HUBBARD, C. E., E. MILNEREDHEAD & coll. (1952-). Flora of tropical East Africa. 91 vol. ou fasc. Kenya, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
NEWTON, L. (1997). An update on other East African succulents. Ballya 4(2): 32-40.
NEWMARK, W. D. (2002). Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests. A study of the Eastern Arc Mountains. Springer, Berlin, etc. XII + 197 pp.
BAVAZZANO, R. (1972). Contributo alla conoscenza della flora del territorio Francese degli Afar et degli Issa (collezione E. Chedeville). Webbia 26: 267-364.
CHEDEVILLE, E. (1972). La végétation du territoire français des Afars et des Issas. Webbia 26: 243-266.
LEBRUN, J.-P., J. AUDRU & J. CESAR (1990). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. 1 vol., 277 pp. (Etudes et Synthèses de l'IEMVT 34), Maisons-Alfort.
AUDRU, J. & al. (1987). La végétation et les potentialités pastorales de la République de Djibouti. 1 vol., 384 pp. I.E.M.V.T, Maisons-Alfort.

CUFODONTIS, G. (1953-1972). Enumeratio plantarum Aethiopiae. Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat, Bruxelles.
BREITENBACH, E VON (1963). The indigenous trees of Ethiopia, 2° éd. 1 vol., 305 pp., Ethiopian Forestry Association, Addis Abeba.
BURGER, W. (1967). Families of flowering plants in Ethiopia. 1 vol., 236 pp., Experiment Station.
HEDBERG, I. & S. EDWARDS (1989). Flora of Ethiopia 3. (Pittosporaceae-Araliaceae). 1 vol., LXX1 + 660 pp. Addis Ababa, Asmara & Uppsala.
PUFF, C. & SILESHI NEMOMISSA (2005). Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, Northern Ethiopia. Scripta Bot. Belg. 37. IV + 258 pp.
ASFAW NIGIST & SEBSEBE DEMISSEW (2009). Aromatic plants of Ethiopia. Shama Books, Addis Ababa. 258 pp.
FRIIS, I. & al. (2010). Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia. Biol. Skrifter 58. 307 pp.
HEDBERG, I. & S. EDWARDS & al. eds (1995-2009). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Addis Ababa, Uspsala.1-7 vol.


EL AMIN, H. M. (1990). Trees and shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaca Press, Exeter. VII + 484 pp.
BEENTJE, H. J. (1994). Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya,.Nairobi. IX + 722 pp.
FRIIS, I. & K. VOLLESEN (1998). Flora of the Sudan-Uganda border area east of the Nile. (Biologiske Skrifter 51: 1) Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen. 389 pp.
SCHULZ, R. & A. POWYS (1998). Pinguone, Kenya succulents and their environment. R. Schulz, Teesdale/Australia. 160 pp., incl. seed list.
NEWTON, L. (2003). A Checklist of Kenyan Succulent Plants. Succulenta East Africa, Nairobi. 40 pp.
EILU, G. (1999). Climbers from tropical rain forests at the Albertine Rift, Western Uganda. Lidia 4: 93-120.

SYNNOTT, T. J. (1985). A checklist of the flora of Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, with notes on ecology and phenology. C.F.I. Occasional Papers 27, University of Oxford. 99 pp.

KUCHAR, R (1986). The plants of Somalia: an overview and checklist. Central Rangelands Development Project. Technical report Series, n° 16.
THULIN, M. (1993-2006) Flora of Somalia. vol. 1-4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


RUFFO, C. K. & al. (1996). Catalogue of Lushoto herbarium Tanzania. Tanzania Forestry Research Institute & Tanzania National Tree Seed Programme, Morogoro. XX + 467 pp.
LOVETT, J. C. & al. (2006). Field guide to the moist forest trees of Tanzania. The Society for Environmental Exploration, UK & the University of Dar es Salaam. 344 pp.

ROODT, V. (1998). The Shell field guide series: Part 1. Trees and shrubs of the Okavango Delta. Medicinal uses and nutritional value. Shell Oil Botswana, Gaborone. 221 pp.
ROODT, V. (1998). The Shell field guide series: Part 2. Common wild flowers of the Okavango Delta. Medicinal uses and nutritional value. Shell Oil Botswana (Pty) Ltd, Gaborone. 174 pp.

WHITE, F., F. DOWSETT-LEMAIE & J. D. CHAPMAN (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. X + 697 pp.
BURROWS, J. E. & C. K. WILLIS, Eds. (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau: An account of the vegetation of the Nyika National Parks of Malawi and Zambia. Sabonet Report 31. 405 pp.
STRUGNELL, A. M. (2006). A checklist of the spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi. Scripta Bot. Belg. 34. 199 pp.


PERCY-LANCASTER, A. & D. RICHARDS (1997). A provisional checklist of Zimbabwean succulents, caudiciforms and pachycauls. Excelsa 18: 4-12, 157.
KIMBERLEY, M. J. (1997). Succulent plant families in Zimbabwe. Excelsa 18: 1-3.
TIMBERLAKE, J. & al. (1999). Field guide to the acacias of Zimbabwe. CBC Publishing, Harare. 160 pp. + map.


ARNOLD, T. H. & B. C. de WET, Eds. (1993). Plants of Southern Africa: Names and distribution. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. IV + 825 pp. (Memoirs Bot. Survey S. Africa 62).
COATES PALGRAVE, K. (1997). Trees of Southern Africa, Ed.2. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 959 pp.
RETIEF, E. & P. P. J. HERMAN (1997). Plants of the northern provinces of South Africa: Keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6; VII + 681 pp.
WYK, B. van, P. van WYK & B.-E. van WYK (2000). Photographic guide to trees of southern Africa. Briza Publ. 356 pp.
COURT, D. (2000). Succulent flora of southern Africa. Revised edition. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam & Brookfield. XII +300 pp.
THOMAS, V. & R. GRANT (2002). Sappi tree spotting. Highveld and the Drakensberg: Tree & shrub identification made easy. Jacana, Johannesburg. XIV + 306 pp.
GERMISHUIZEN, G. & al., Eds. (2006). A checklist of South African plants. Sabonet Report 41. 1126 pp.
SCHMIDT, E. & al. (2007). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park, ed. 2. Jacana Media, Johannesburg. 702 pp.
VAN WYK, B. & P. VAN WYK (2007). How to identify trees in southern Africa. Struik Publ., Cape Town. 184 pp.
VAN WYK, B. & al. (2008). Photo guide to trees of southern Africa, ed. 2. Briza Publications, Pretoria. 360 pp.
WYK, P. VAN (2008). Field guide to the trees of the Kruger National Park, ed. 5. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 272 pp.
VAN WYK, B.-E. & al. (2009). Medicinal plants of South Africa, ed. 2. Briza Publication, Pretoria. 336 pp.

EXELL, A. W &E A. MENDONCA puis EXELL & A. FERNANDES (éds.) (1937-1982). Conspectus florae angolensis. 4 vol. +vol. Pteridophyta + fascicule Fam. 70, Crassulaceae, Junta deInvestigaçôes do Ultramar, Lisboa.
CRAVEN, P. & C. MARAIS (2003). Damaraland Flora: Spitzkoppe, Brandberg, Twyfelfontein. Gamsberg Macmillan Publishers, Windhoek. 127 pp.
FIGUEIREDO, E. & G. F. SMITH (2009). The succulent flora of Angola. Haseltonia 15: 69-78.
FIGUEIREDO, E. & G. F. SMITH (2008). Plants of Angola/Plantas de Angola. Strelitzia 22. VI + 279 pp.


CURTIS, B. & C. MANNHEIMER (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia. National Botanical Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, Windhoek. XIV + 674 pp.
FOWLER, D. G. (2007). Zambian plants: Their vernacular names and uses. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 298 pp.


DOBIGNARD, A. & C. CHATELAIN (2010-2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du Nord. Vol: 1-5.
DESFONTAINES, R.L. (1798). Flora Atlantica. Sive historia plantarum quae in Atlante, agro tunetano et algeriensi crescunt. Paris. 2 vol., 9 fasc.
OZENDA, P. (1991). Flore du Sahara. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris. Edition 2, 1vol.
MAIRE, R. & Coll. <>Flore de l'Afrique du Nord. Lechevalier éd. Paris, 16 vol. (1952-1987). Publié par les soins de M. GUINOCHET (vol. 1-5) et L. FAUREL (vol. 1-3), P.; QUéZEL (vol. 5-16).
Vol. 1: [1] - 366 (1952) R. MAIRE & M. WEILLER coll. - Pteridophyta - Gymnospermae - Monocotyledonae (Gramineae p. p.).
Vol. 2: [1] - 374 (1953) R. MAIRE & M. WEILLER coll. - Monocotyledonae (Glumiflorae: Gramineae p. p.).
Vol. 3: [1] - 399 (1955) R. MAIRE & M. WEILLER coll. - Monocotyledonae (Glumiflorae: Gramineae fin).
Vol. 4: [1] - 333 (1957) R. MAIRE - Monocotyledonae (Glumiflorae: Cyperaceae, Principes, Spathiflorae, Commelinales).
Vol. 5: [1] - 307 (1958) R. MAIRE - Monocotyledonae (Liliales: Liliaceae).
Vol. 6: [1] - 374 (1960) R. MAIRE - Monocotyledonae (Liliales: Amaryllidaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Iridaceae, Scitaminales, Gynandrales:
Vol. 7: [1] - 329 (1961) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Casuarinales, Piperales, Salicales, Juglandales, Fagales, Juglandales,
Urticales, Proteales, Santalales, Aristolochiales, Polygonales].
Vol. 8: [1] - 303 (1962) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Centrospermales: Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Nyctaginaceae,
Phytolacaceae, Thelygonaceae, Aizoaceae, Portulacaceae, Basellaceae].
Vol. 9: [1] - 300 (1963) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Centrospermales: Caryophyllaceae p. p.].
Vol. 10: [1] - 338 (1963) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Centrospermales: Caryophyllaceae fin].
Vol. 11: [1] - 335 (1964) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Nymphaeaceae, Ranunculaceae, Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae p. p.].
Vol. 12: [1] - 407 (1965) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Papaveraceae fin, Capparidaceae, Cruciferae p. p.].
Vol. 13: [1] - 365 (1967) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Cruciferae p. p.].
Vol. 14: [1] - 397 (1977) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Cruciferae fin, Resedaceae, Droseraceae, Crassulaceae].
Vol. 15: [1] - 309 (1980) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Saxifragaceae, Pittosporaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae]
Vol. 16: [1] - 302 (1987) R. MAIRE - Dicotyledonae (p. p.): [Leguminosae (p. p.)].
Supplément à la Flore de l'Afrique du Nord
Vol. 6: 375 - 390 (1960) P. QUéZEL - Vol. 1-6, Monocotylédones

ALI, S.I., JAFRI, S.M.H. & A. EL GADI (ed.) (1979-1989). Flora of Libya. Al Faateh University. Tripoli. 147 fascicules.

TÄCKHOLM, V. & M. DRAR (1950-1969). Flora of Egypt. 4 vol. Fouad Univ. Press, Cairo.
BOULOS, L. (1999-2005). Flora of Egypt. 4 vol. Al Haddara Publishing (ed.), Cairo.

CUéNOD, A. & coll. (1954). Flore analytique et synoptique de la Tunisie. Office de l'expérimentation et de la vulgarisation agricoles de Tunisie. Tunis, 1 vol. Cryptogames vasculaires, gymnospermes et monocotylédones.
POTTIER-ALAPETITE, G. (1979-1981). Flore de la Tunisie. Publications scientifiques tunisiennes. Programme flore et végétation tunisiennes. Tunis. 2 vol.

LE FLOC'H, E., L. BOULOS & E. VéLA (2010) Catalogue synonymique commenté de la Flore de Tunisie. Ministère de l'Environnement et du Développement durable. Tunis., édition 2.

NèGRE, R. (1961-1962). Petite Flore des régions arides du Maroc occidental. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris. 2 vol.
SAUVAGE, Ch. & J. VINDT (1952, 1954). Flore du Maroc analytique, descriptive et illustrée. Travaux de l'Institut scientifique chérifien. Editions internationales, Tanger. 2 fasc.
VALDéS, B., M. REJDALI, A.& al. (2002). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'identification. Checklist of vascular plants of N Morocco with identification keys. C.S.I.C. Madrid. 2 vol.
FENNANE, M., M. IBN TATTOU, J. MATHEZ, A. OUYAHYA & J. EL OUALIDI (éd.) (1999-2015). Flore pratique du Maroc.Manuel de détermination des plantes vasculaires. Travaux de l'Institut Scientifique Rabat, Série Botanique. 3 vol.
FENNANE, M. & M. IBN TATTOU (2005-2009). Flore vasculaire du Maroc, inventaire et chorologie. Travaux de l'Institut Scientifique Rabat, Série Botanique. 2 vol.
CHATELAIN C., S. BENHOUHOU & B. MEDJAHDI (2019- ). Efloramaghreb.

BATTANDIER, J.A. & M. TRABUT (1884). Flore d'Alger et Catalogue des plantes d'Algérie. Monocotyledones par J.A. Battandier & M. Trabut. 1 vol.

BATTANDIER, J.A. & M. TRABUT (1888-1890).Flore de l'Algérie. Ancienne Flore d'Alger transforméeContenant la description de toutes les plantes signalées jusqu'à ce jour comme spontanées en Algérie. Alger & Paris. 2 vol.
BATTANDIER, J.A. & M. TRABUT (1905). Flore analytique et synoptique de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie. Vve. Girault (éd.), Alger. 460p.
QUéZEL, P. & S. SANTA (1962-1963). >Nouvelle Flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris., 2 vol.